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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Day 2:Manufacturing processes  

2008-11-08 22:22:39|  分类: 努力工作 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1 Manufacturing processes

1 生产过程

 

1.1 Mastering

1.1 母版生产

Several mastering processes are able to generate the small structures needed for the Blu-ray Disc format. The process discussed below is the PTM, or Phase Transition Mastering. A laser beam is focused into an inorganic recording material applied on top of a silicone wafer.

有几种母版生产过程都可以形成Blu-ray光盘所需的微小结构。下面讨论的生产过程是PTM,即相变母版生产。一束激光聚焦到硅片上面的无机刻录材料内。

For BD-ROM masters, what is recorded is the video content along with control features and tables of content. The content is stored as embossed pits.

对于BD-ROM母版来说,记录的是带有控制特征和内容表的视频内容。这些数据以浮雕状的坑形存储。

In the case for BD-R and BD-RE masters, the laser beam is oscillated in the radial direction to generate the wobbled groove used for tracking that also carries timing information and the addressing system for the consumer recorder. For BD-R/RE masters, control data for the consumer recorder (i.e. manufacturing code, recording velocity limitations, suggested recording power, write strategy etc.) is also encoded into the wobbled groove. This means that a new master is made whenever these conditions change.

对于BD-R和BD-RE来说,激光束沿直径方向摆动以生成摆动的沟槽,摆动槽用于激光头跟踪和携带为家用刻录机准备的时间信息和地址系统。用于家用刻录机的控制数据(如:制造编码、刻录速度限制、建议的刻录功率,写策略等)也编码到摆动槽中。这意味着每当这些信息发生变化就产生了一张新的母版。

The inorganic resist changes phase to crystalline when it is exposed to the heat from the laser light. The crystalline areas (i.e. embossed pits in case of BDROM or the wobbled groove in case of BD-R/RE) become soluble in a development fluid and thus are washed away in the development process.

当遭受到激光的热量时,无机光阻层相变为晶体。晶体区域(如 BD-ROM的浮雕坑形或BD-R/RE的摆动槽)在显影液中变得可溶解,因而可以在显影过程中被洗掉。

 

1.2 Stamper plating

1.2 压模电铸

The next step is to produce a production stamper from the master. The master is submerged in a nickel bath in which the metal stamper is grown on top of the master. After a desired thickness is achieved, the stamper is separated from the master. Several metal stampers can be generated from the same PTM-master. After the separation process, the backside of the stamper is backsanded and polished to get a smooth backside. The surface property of the backside of the stamper is important as it affects the quality of the moulded plastic replica. The nickel stamper is then cut to the appropriate diameter along with punching a center hole used to center the stamper in the moulding machine.

接下来的过程时从母版生成一个生产压模。母版被浸没与镍浴中,而金属压模在母版上面生长。当达到了期望的厚度时,压膜就可以从母版上分离下来。可以用同一个PTM母版生成几个压模。分离之后,再对压模的背面进行打磨和抛光以形成光滑的表面。压模背面的表面特性非常重要,因为它会影响到成型塑料子片的质量。最后在镍制压模上冲切用于在成型机安装的中心孔,并以中心孔定位切割到适当的直径。

 

1.3 Moulding

1.3 成型

The stamper is mounted in the mould chamber of the injection moulding machine. The melted plastic, normally polycarbonate, is pressed against the metal stamper, thus replicating the information as embossed pits (in case of BD-ROM) or wobbled groove (in case of BD-R/RE) depending on which stamper that is used. The information is stored at the bottom side of a 1.1mm thick substrate. Limiting factors in this process is the desired quality of the replicated structures, the desired cycle time and the pit/groove geometry of the stamper. For the Blu-ray Disc format, the optical characteristics of moulded substrate are not important. The moulding process of the Blu-ray Disc format requires only a single moulding machine.

压模被安装到注射成型机的模具型腔中。熔融的塑料,一般为聚碳酸酯,被注射到型腔中,而压模上的信息——浮雕坑型(BD-ROM)或摆动槽(BD-R/RE)——被复制到塑料上,这样,信息被存储到1.1毫米厚的基片上。此过程的限制性因素是复制结构的预期质量,预期的周期时间和压模坑/槽的几何形状。对于Blu-ray格式来说,基片的光学特性是不重要的。Blu-ray的注射成型过程只需要一台注塑机就够了。

 

 

1.4 Metallizing

1.4 金属化

 

The next step is to apply a metal layer on top of the embossed pits or wobbled groove.

下一个步骤是在塑料基片的浮雕坑型或摆动槽的上面覆盖一个金属层。

For BD-ROM, the metal layer acts as reflective layer, reflecting the laser light back to the BD-drive when reading the disc. For the recordable- and re-recordable formats, the metal layer has two main purposes, one for recording the disc and one for reading the disc. The importance of the metal layer in terms of recording is to act as a heat sink. As the recording mechanism is heat based it is very important to have high temperature where the recorded marks ("pits") shall be created and considerably lower temperature where the spaces ("lands") shall be. The thickness of the metal layer strongly affects how much of the heat that can be removed during the recording process. The reason for the metal layer in terms of playback properties is the same as for BD-ROM: to reflect the laser light and thus generates the HF-signal necessary to extract the user data. As the information is read from the remaining surface structure of the reflective layer, the thickness of the metal film must be carefully controlled and monitored.

对于BD-ROM,金属层是作为反射层用的,当光驱读取的时候,反射层将激光反射回BD-ROM驱动器。对于可记录和可擦写格式来说,金属层有两个功能,一个是用于记录的功能,一个是用于读取的功能。在记录过程中,金属层的重要性在于起到散热的作用。因为记录的机理是基于热量的,在高温区域形成记录标志(坑)而低温区域形成间隔(台)。金属层的厚度决定了在记录过程中有多少热量可以带走。在播放过程中,金属层的作用和ROM格式是一样的——反射激光形成高频信号以便提取用户数据。由于信息是从反射层的表面读取,所以金属的厚度需要非常仔细的控制和监测。

 

1.5 Application of recording material (BD-R/RE)

1.5 关于刻录材料(BD-R/RE)

If producing BD-R/RE discs, a recording layer needs to be applied. The recording layer is the layer in which the consumer recorder later on writes the user data.

如果生产BD-R/RE光盘,需要一个记录层,记录层用于消费记录器在上面写入数据。

The recording layer can be an organic or in-organic recording material (in case of BD-R) or an in-organic phase-change stack (in case of BD-RE). The thickness and material composition are factors critical for the performance of the disc during the recording phase. Additional layers to control heat transfer and prevent material flow can also be applied.

记录层可以是有机、无机的记录材料(BD-R),或者无机相变堆积层(BD-RE)。合成材料的厚度是影响记录时的性能的决定性因素。还可以增加一些层来控制热传导和防止材料流动。

 

 

1.6 Cover layer

1.6 覆盖层

The next step is to apply the roughly 100 μm thin cover layer. The cover layer can be fabricated either by a transparent plastic foil or by spin coating an equally transparent resin on top of the metal film. The foil can be attached to the substrate either by a UV-cured resin or by a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA). If the spin coating method is used, a UV-resin is spun on top of the metal film and cured by UV-exposure.

接下来的步骤是制作厚度只有大约100μm的覆盖层。制作覆盖层可以使用透明塑料薄片或者在金属层上面旋涂透明树脂。塑料薄片可以用两种方法贴在盘片上:一种是用UV树脂粘贴,一种是使用压敏粘接剂。若使用旋涂法,就是在金属膜的上面旋涂一层UV树脂并用UV固化。

Regardless of the method of application, the thickness of the cover layer must be carefully controlled as the Blu-ray Disc format is very sensitive to cover layer thickness deviations.

不管使用何种方法,覆盖层的厚度必须精心控制,因为Blu-ray格式的覆盖层厚度变化是非常敏感的。

 

1.7 Hardcoat

1.7 硬涂层

Due to the small information structures and thin cover layer, the Blu-ray Disc needs special protection against surface scratches, thus a hard coat is needed. The hard coat is normally applied as a spin coated layer on top of the cover layer. The hard coat, together with the cover layer, shall form a 100 μm optically transparent layer. The hard coat has a specified impact resistance.

由于信息层结构微小,覆盖层又很薄,Blu-ray光盘需要特别保护以防止表面划伤。因此硬涂层是必要的。硬涂层一般是在覆盖层上面旋涂一层。这样,硬涂层和覆盖层合起来应为100μm的光学透明层。硬涂层有特定的冲击抵抗能力要求。

 

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