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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.

 
 
 

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时文快译:《科学美国人》· 奥巴马国情咨文:关于清洁能源和宽带访问的事实  

2011-01-29 09:54:41|  分类: 读点英文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Obama's State of the Union: The facts about clean energy and broadband access

奥巴马国情咨文:关于清洁能源和宽带访问的事实

http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=obamas-state-of-the-union-the-facts-2011-01-26

By Larry Greenemeier | Jan 26, 2011 05:35 PM

作者:拉里·格林迈耶

时文快译 ~ing:《科学美国人》· 奥巴马国情咨文:关于清洁能源和宽带访问的事实 - 七郎 - 七郎

 

It's debatable that the U.S. is feeling the same sense of unity and resolve toward technology that it did more than 50 years ago when the Soviet Union launched its Sputnik satellite and won the race to space. Regardless, as President Obama pointed out during last night's State of the Union Address, a Sputnik-like response is in order if the U.S. is to develop the technology needed to address a number of significant challenges the nation faces in the coming years—in particular clean energy and ubiquitous broadband communications.

如果说美国在团结而坚决的发展技术方面的感觉,和50年代差不多或者至少不比那个时候更迫切、更坚决,是有争议的,那时苏联在卫星发射的太空竞赛竞赛中获胜了。因为奥巴马总统在昨晚的国情咨文演讲中指出,和苏联卫星发射时一样的感觉要求美国去发展所需的技术以迎接未来几年中所面临的挑战——特别在清洁能源和无所不在的宽带通信方面。

Understandably, given the breadth of topics he needed to cover, the President mentioned but did not provide much detail about several key technology initiatives underway. Scientific American fills in some of the blanks related to key statements Obama made last night.

很容易理解,奥巴马的演讲仅概括了所述主题的涵盖范围,并没有提供争取几种发展中的关键技术的主动权问题的更多细节。《科学美国人》填补了奥巴马昨晚关键陈述内容中的一些空白。

"At the California Institute of Technology, they're developing a way to turn sunlight and water into fuel for our cars."  The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in July announced an award of up to $122 million over five years to establish an Energy Innovation Hub directed by Caltech chemistry professor Nathan Lewis. The organization will include a multidisciplinary team of scientists aimed at developing new methods to generate fuels directly from sunlight. Caltech is leading the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) in partnership with the DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to develop an integrated solar energy-to-chemical fuel conversion system and move this system from the bench-top discovery phase to a scale where it can be commercialized.

“在加州理工学院,他们正在研究用于汽车的将阳光和水转化成能源的方法。”   ^$#&34/angry.out /.^%$sad3uq43#%  饥饿 and  咽喉痛......无法继续翻译了,I need something to make me happy and comfort,I’ll be back ASAP......残阳如血、居安当思危险在,新年也要枕下放把刀.........只是此刻 desperate need 逍遥........2011-1-29 18:12:33.。。。。2011-1-29 22:18:04 back!.  美国能源部于7月份宣布将在未来五年中提供高达一亿两千两百万美元的奖项用于创建由加州理工学院化学教授南森·路易斯领导的能源创新中心。该组织将包括一个多学科的科学团队协助发展用阳光直接产生燃料的新方法。加州理工学院目前领导着和劳伦斯·伯克利国家实验室共建的人工太阳能联合研究中心的工作,该中心负责研究集成的太阳能-化学燃料转化系统,正努力将该系统从案头研究阶段提升到可商业化的水平。

时文快译 ~ing:《科学美国人》· 奥巴马国情咨文:关于清洁能源和宽带访问的事实 - 七郎 - 七郎

 

Also at Caltech, researchers are developing a new reactor to capture solar energy and use it as a catalyst to convert carbon dioxide and water into fuel. Led by Sossina Haile, a professor of materials science and chemical engineering, Caltech scientists have built a 61-centimeter tall prototype reactor with a quartz window that acts as a magnifying glass to focus sunlight coming into the reactor, whose inner cavity is lined with ceria, a metal oxide commonly found in self-cleaning ovens. When the cavity absorbs the concentrated sunlight and is heated the ceria acts as a catalyst, releasing oxygen from its crystalline framework. When the cavity is cooled a chemical reaction produces carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas can be used to fuel hydrogen fuel cells, whereas the carbon monoxide, combined with the hydrogen gas, can be used to create synthetic gas.

同样是在加州理工学院,研究人员正在研发一个能捕获太阳能并将其用作催化剂的反应装置,由该装置将二氧化碳和水转化成燃料。由材料科学和化学工程教授索西亚·黑尔领导,加州理工学院的科学家们已建成了一个61厘米高的有一个石英窗口的原型反应器,石英窗口作为一个放大镜将阳光聚焦到反应器中,而反应器的内腔镶有二氧化铈(二氧化铈是一种金属氧化物,通常可以在自洁烤箱内找到它)。当聚焦的太阳光作为催化剂加热二氧化铈后,从它的晶格中释放出氧。当腔体冷却时通过化学反应就产出了一氧化碳和氢气。氢气可以用于氢燃料电池,而一氧化碳和氢气的混合可以制成人造气体燃料。

"At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, they're using supercomputers to get a lot more power out of our nuclear facilities."
Oak Ridge researchers are using the DOE's largest supercomputer—the XT5 Jaguar—to build a 3-D virtual reactor that they can use to figure out how to generate energy more efficiently and with less waste.

“在橡树岭国家实验室,他们使用超级计算机获得核设施的更大功率。”橡树岭的研究人员们使用能源部最强大的计算机——“XT5美洲虎”——绘出反应器的3D模型,并计算出如何才能更高效率更低消耗的产出能源。

"Just recently, China became the home to the world's largest private solar research facility, and the world's fastest computer."
In March, Santa Clara, Calif.–based Applied Materials opened its Solar Technology Center in Xi'an, China. At 400,000 square feet, this facility is indeed the world's largest non-governmental solar energy research facility, with laboratory and office buildings for research and development, engineering, product demonstration, testing and training for crystalline silicon and thin-film solar module manufacturing equipment and processes.

“最近,中国成为全球最大的私人太阳能研究设施的所在地,而拥有了世界上最快的计算机。”在三月份,总部位于加州的圣克拉拉应用材料设在中国西安的太阳能技术中心投入使用了,占地40万平方英尺,该设施是名副其实的世界最大的民间太阳能研究中心,拥有用于晶体硅和薄片太阳能模组生产设备和工艺的研发、工程、产品演示以及培训的实验室和办公室。

China's Tianhe-1A supercomputer at the National Supercomputer Center in Tianjin has achieved a performance level of 2.57 petaflops per second (a petaflop is one quadrillion calculations per second). This ranks the Tianhe-1A ahead of the former number one system—Oak Ridge's Jaguar, which has achieved a tope performance level of 1.75 petaflops per second.

位于天津的中国国家超级计算中心,拥有的“天河-1A”超级计算机已经达到了2.57pataflops(1 pataflot是次数为每秒为百万的四次方)的性能水平。“天河-1A”的排名超过了此前性能为每秒1.75 petaflots而名列全球第一的系统——橡树岭的“美洲虎”。

"Our infrastructure used to be the best, but our lead has slipped. South Korean homes now have greater Internet access than we do."
It's true that two studies last year—the first by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the second by the University of Oxford's Sa?d Business School and Cisco Systems—ranked the U.S. 15th among developed nations in terms of universal broadband access. However, the U.S.'s performance is the result of a number of factors, not the least of which is the country's physical size. The U.S. has more broadband subscriber lines than any other country, and it also has a lot more territory to cover than say, Japan, which is number two in terms of broadband subscriber lines, according to the GAO report. Japan is about the size of California. Likewise, top-ranked South Korea's infrastructure needs to cover a landmass only slightly larger than Indiana.

“我们的基础设施曾经是最好的,但现在却在下滑。现在南韩已超越我们,拥有世界上最好的因特网访问。”这是去年的两个真实研究案例——前一个由美国联邦审计总署发布,而后一个由牛津赛德商学院和思科公司调研,结论是美国在15个发达国家中因特网访问排名第15位。然而,美国的成绩是综合多种因素的评价结果,国家的实际大小也是很重要。美国拥有比其他国家更多的宽带用户专线,也有更多的领土来抵消这种说法,根据联邦审计总署的报告,日本拥有世界排名第二的宽带用户专线。而日本的面积相当于加利福尼亚,同样的,公认最佳的南韩的基础设施需要覆盖的领土面积只比印第安纳州大一点点。

"Within the next five years, we'll make it possible for businesses to deploy the next generation of high-speed wireless coverage to 98 percent of all Americans."

“在未来的五年内,我们将使下一代用于企业的高速无线网络覆盖98%的美国人成为可能。”
About 75 percent of households have a broadband connection today, and those connections have average download speeds of about 9.6 megabits per second and upload speeds of about two megabits per second, according to the Sa?d–Cisco study. The GAO study estimated that more than 90 percent of U.S. households have broadband access.

根据赛德-思科的研究,今天,75%的家庭拥有宽带接入,而且其平均的下载速度为每秒9.6兆位,平均上载速度为每秒2兆位。而联邦会计总署则估计超过90%的家庭用用宽带访问。


(注:赛德商学院:Sa?d 中的 ? 是上面是两个点的 i 。文中无法正确显示。)

Finished at 0:41:51,had 1000ml tea,3 navel oranges and many melon seeds.

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