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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.




阅读:动机、能力和机会_4_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition  

2012-12-20 17:49:35|  分类: 读点英文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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What Affects Motivation?


Because motivation can affect outcomes of interest to marketers (like goal-relevant behaviors such as purchasing, effortful information processing, and felt involvement; see Exhibit 2.1) it is important for marketers to understand what affects motivation. If they know what creates motivation, they may be able to develop marketing tactics to in?uence consumers' motivation to think about, be involved with, and/or process information about their brand or ad. Exhibit 2.1 shows that a key driver of motivation is personal relevance. In turn, personal relevance is affected by how relevant something like a brand or an ad is to consumers' (a) self-concepts, (b) values, (c) needs, and (d) goals.

因为动机会影响兴趣的结果(如购买、努力的信息处理和感觉涉入等"目标涉入行为",参阅图2.1),对于销售人员来说,理解什么对动机产生影响是非常重要的。如果他们知道是什么建立了动机,他们就可以制定市场营销策略来影响消费者的动机,促使消费者思考、涉入,并/或处理与其产品或广告有关的信息。图2.1指出动机的关键驱动力来自个人相关性。进一步说,个人相关性取决于某种东西(比如品牌或广告)对消费者的以下方面的影响程度:(a) 自我认知, (b) 价值观, (c) 需求, 和 (d) 目标。


Personal Relevance


Personal relevance: Something that has a direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications for our lives.



A key factor affecting motivation is the extent to which something is personally relevant—that is, the extent to which it has a direct bearing on and significant implications for your life. For example, if you learn that your laptop computer's battery is being recalled because it can overheat and cause a fire, you will probably find this issue to be personally relevant. Careers, college activities, romantic relationships, a car, an apartment or house, clothes, and hobbies are likely to be personally relevant because their consequences are significant for you. Research indicates that the prospect of receiving a customized (and therefore more personally relevant) product will motivate consumers to disclose private information, although they are less likely to reveal details that could be embarrassing. People perceive something as personally relevant when it is consistent with their values, needs, goals, and emotions. This relevance fuels their motivation to process information, make decisions, and take actions.




Consistency with Self-Concept



Self-concept: Our mental view of who we are.


Something may be personally relevant to the extent that it bears on your self-concept, or your view of yourself and the way you think others view you. Self-concept helps us define who we are, and it frequently guides our behavior. Note that different parts of a self-concept can be salient at different times. When we buy clothing, we are often making a statement about some aspect of who we are—such as a professional, a student, or a sports fan. To illustrate, some consumers find brands like Harley-Davidson to be relevant to their self-concept. Red, a U.K. women's magazine, makes itself relevant by appealing to the reader's self-concept as busy and productive but entitled to small indulgences. In a similar way, reality TV shows can be relevant when viewers identify with the lives of the people on the show.






Values: Beliefs about what is right, important, or good.


Consumers are more motivated to attend to and process information when they find it relevant to their values—beliefs that guide what people regard as important or good. Thus, if you see education as very important, you are likely to be motivated to engage in behaviors that are consistent with this value, such as pursuing a degree. (You'll read more about values in Chapter 14.)






Needs: An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state.


Consumers also find things personally relevant when they have a bearing on activated needs. A need is an internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal or desired state.


For example, at certain times of the day, your stomach begins to feel uncomfortable. You realize it is time to get something to eat, and you are motivated to direct your behavior toward certain outcomes (such as opening the refrigerator). Eating satisfies your need and removes the tension—in this case, hunger. Once you are motivated to satisfy a particular need, objects unrelated to that need seem less attractive. Thus, if you are motivated to fix your hair because you're having a bad hair day, a product such as styling gel will seem more attractive and important than will popcorn or another snack. Needs can also lead us away from a product or service: You might stay away from the dentist because you want to avoid pain.

例如,在一天的某个时间,你的肚子开始感觉到不舒服。你意识到是时候弄些东西吃了,这激励并驱动你做出必然的行为(比如打开冰箱)。进食,满足了你的需要并消除了紧张——在此例中,就是饥饿。一旦你受到去满足特定需要的激励,与需要无关的对象就似乎不那么有吸引力了。因此,因为你过了不愉快的一天(a bad hair day),产生了整理头发的动机,某种产品,比如发胶,与爆米花或其它小吃比起来似乎更重要更有新引力。需要,也可能使你远离某种产品或服务:你会远离牙医,因为你想要避免疼痛。

What needs do consumers experience? Psychologist Abraham Maslow's theory groups needs into the five categories shown in Exhibit 2.3: (1) physiological (the need for food, water, and sleep); (2) safety (the need for shelter, protection, and security); (3) social (the need for affection, friendship, and acceptance); (4) egoistic (the need for prestige, success, accomplishment, and self-esteem); and (5) self-actualization (the need for self-fulfillment and enriching experiences). Within this hierarchy, lower-level needs generally must be satisfied before higher-level needs become activated. Thus before we can worry about prestige, we must meet lower level needs for food, water, and so on.


Although Maslow's hierarchy brings useful organization to the complex issue of needs, some critics say it is too simplistic. First, needs are not always ordered exactly as in this hierarchy. Some consumers might place a higher priority on buying lottery tickets than on acquiring necessities such as food and clothing. Second, the hierarchy ignores the intensity of needs and the resulting effect on motivation. Finally, the ordering of needs may not be consistent across cultures. In some societies, for instance, social needs and belonging may be higher in the hierarchy than egoistic needs.


阅读:动机、能力和机会_4_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition - 七郎 - 七郎 / Seven Liu


Exhibit 2.3


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow suggested that needs can be categorized into a basic hierarchy. People fulfill lower order needs (e.g., physiological needs for food, water, sleep) before they fulfill higher order needs.



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