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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.

 
 
 

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阅读:动机、能力和机会_4_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition  

2012-12-20 17:49:35|  分类: 读点英文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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What Affects Motivation?

是什么影响动机?

Because motivation can affect outcomes of interest to marketers (like goal-relevant behaviors such as purchasing, effortful information processing, and felt involvement; see Exhibit 2.1) it is important for marketers to understand what affects motivation. If they know what creates motivation, they may be able to develop marketing tactics to in?uence consumers' motivation to think about, be involved with, and/or process information about their brand or ad. Exhibit 2.1 shows that a key driver of motivation is personal relevance. In turn, personal relevance is affected by how relevant something like a brand or an ad is to consumers' (a) self-concepts, (b) values, (c) needs, and (d) goals.

因为动机会影响兴趣的结果(如购买、努力的信息处理和感觉涉入等"目标涉入行为",参阅图2.1),对于销售人员来说,理解什么对动机产生影响是非常重要的。如果他们知道是什么建立了动机,他们就可以制定市场营销策略来影响消费者的动机,促使消费者思考、涉入,并/或处理与其产品或广告有关的信息。图2.1指出动机的关键驱动力来自个人相关性。进一步说,个人相关性取决于某种东西(比如品牌或广告)对消费者的以下方面的影响程度:(a) 自我认知, (b) 价值观, (c) 需求, 和 (d) 目标。

 

Personal Relevance

个人相关性

Personal relevance: Something that has a direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications for our lives.

个人相关性:某种对我们自身有直接影响的东西,它对我们的生活有显著的潜在后果或影响。

 

A key factor affecting motivation is the extent to which something is personally relevant—that is, the extent to which it has a direct bearing on and significant implications for your life. For example, if you learn that your laptop computer's battery is being recalled because it can overheat and cause a fire, you will probably find this issue to be personally relevant. Careers, college activities, romantic relationships, a car, an apartment or house, clothes, and hobbies are likely to be personally relevant because their consequences are significant for you. Research indicates that the prospect of receiving a customized (and therefore more personally relevant) product will motivate consumers to disclose private information, although they are less likely to reveal details that could be embarrassing. People perceive something as personally relevant when it is consistent with their values, needs, goals, and emotions. This relevance fuels their motivation to process information, make decisions, and take actions.

影响动机的关键因素是某种东西在多大程度上与个人相关——换言之,它在多大程度上直接影响你的生活,并会有显著的后果。例如,如果你了解你的笔记本电脑被召回,因它会因过热而起火,你可能会发现这个事对你来说,就具有个人相关性。职业生涯、大学生活、浪漫关系、一辆汽车、一套公寓或者一座房子、衣物,以及兴趣爱好等,可能都与个人相关,因为它们的结果对你来说是非常显著的。研究表明,期望收到定制(至少个人相关性更大)的产品的心里,会激励消费者泄露私人信息,尽管他们不大会透露可能令人尴尬的细节。当人们坚持其价值观、需求、目标和情感时,会在感知上认为某种东西具有个人相关性。相关性促进他们处理信息、做决定并采取行动的动机。

 

 

Consistency with Self-Concept

与自我认知的一致性

 

Self-concept: Our mental view of who we are.

自我认知:我们对"我们是谁"的内心想法。

Something may be personally relevant to the extent that it bears on your self-concept, or your view of yourself and the way you think others view you. Self-concept helps us define who we are, and it frequently guides our behavior. Note that different parts of a self-concept can be salient at different times. When we buy clothing, we are often making a statement about some aspect of who we are—such as a professional, a student, or a sports fan. To illustrate, some consumers find brands like Harley-Davidson to be relevant to their self-concept. Red, a U.K. women's magazine, makes itself relevant by appealing to the reader's self-concept as busy and productive but entitled to small indulgences. In a similar way, reality TV shows can be relevant when viewers identify with the lives of the people on the show.

某种东西可能具有个人相关性,在某种程度上它影响你的自我认知,或者说,是你对自己的看法,和你对"别人将如何看你"的想象。自我认识帮我们定义"我们是谁",并频繁地引导我们的行为。注意,不同的时间,自我认知所凸显的部分也不同。当我们买衣服时,我常常会声明"自己是谁"的某个侧面——比如一个教授、一个学生,或者一个运动爱好者。为了说明对自我的认知,一些消费者将自己和哈雷·戴维森这样的品牌联系起来。Red,英国女性休闲杂志,为了建立这种联系,把读者形象塑造成忙碌的、高效的、偶尔会小小的娇惯一年自己。类似的,当观众与真人秀电视节目中的人物产生共鸣时,就能建立起这种联系。

 

Values

价值观

 

Values: Beliefs about what is right, important, or good.

价值观:关于"什么正确"、"什么重要"或"什么好"的信念。

Consumers are more motivated to attend to and process information when they find it relevant to their values—beliefs that guide what people regard as important or good. Thus, if you see education as very important, you are likely to be motivated to engage in behaviors that are consistent with this value, such as pursuing a degree. (You'll read more about values in Chapter 14.)

当消费者发现与其价值观——引导人们认为重要或正确的观念——相关的事物,就会受到激励去注意并处理相关信息。因此,如果你认为教育很重要,你就有可能受到激励做出于这种价值观相符的行为,比如去谋求一个学位。(在第14章中有更多关于价值观的论述。)

 

Needs

需要

 

Needs: An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state.

需要:与理想的(或渴望的)身心状态相比产生的心理失衡所引起的一种内在的心理紧张状态。

Consumers also find things personally relevant when they have a bearing on activated needs. A need is an internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal or desired state.

当某种东西与活跃的需要有关时,消费者就会发现它们具有个人相关性。需要是与理想的(或渴望的)身心状态相比产生的心理失衡所引起的一种内在的心理紧张状态。

For example, at certain times of the day, your stomach begins to feel uncomfortable. You realize it is time to get something to eat, and you are motivated to direct your behavior toward certain outcomes (such as opening the refrigerator). Eating satisfies your need and removes the tension—in this case, hunger. Once you are motivated to satisfy a particular need, objects unrelated to that need seem less attractive. Thus, if you are motivated to fix your hair because you're having a bad hair day, a product such as styling gel will seem more attractive and important than will popcorn or another snack. Needs can also lead us away from a product or service: You might stay away from the dentist because you want to avoid pain.

例如,在一天的某个时间,你的肚子开始感觉到不舒服。你意识到是时候弄些东西吃了,这激励并驱动你做出必然的行为(比如打开冰箱)。进食,满足了你的需要并消除了紧张——在此例中,就是饥饿。一旦你受到去满足特定需要的激励,与需要无关的对象就似乎不那么有吸引力了。因此,因为你过了不愉快的一天(a bad hair day),产生了整理头发的动机,某种产品,比如发胶,与爆米花或其它小吃比起来似乎更重要更有新引力。需要,也可能使你远离某种产品或服务:你会远离牙医,因为你想要避免疼痛。

What needs do consumers experience? Psychologist Abraham Maslow's theory groups needs into the five categories shown in Exhibit 2.3: (1) physiological (the need for food, water, and sleep); (2) safety (the need for shelter, protection, and security); (3) social (the need for affection, friendship, and acceptance); (4) egoistic (the need for prestige, success, accomplishment, and self-esteem); and (5) self-actualization (the need for self-fulfillment and enriching experiences). Within this hierarchy, lower-level needs generally must be satisfied before higher-level needs become activated. Thus before we can worry about prestige, we must meet lower level needs for food, water, and so on.

消费者会体验到哪些需要?心理学家亚伯拉罕·马斯洛的理论将需要归纳成五种,如图2.3所示。(1),生理(对食物、水和睡眠的需要);(2),安全(对避难所、保护和安全的需要);(3),社交(情感、友谊和被接纳的需要);(4),以自我为中心(对威望、成功、成就及自尊心的需要);(5)自我实现(满足自我并丰富体验的需要)。根据这种层次理论,低层次的需求一般必须在高层次需求被激活之前得到满足。因此,在我们为声誉威望担忧之前,我们必须满足自己填饱肚子的低层次需要,以此类推。

Although Maslow's hierarchy brings useful organization to the complex issue of needs, some critics say it is too simplistic. First, needs are not always ordered exactly as in this hierarchy. Some consumers might place a higher priority on buying lottery tickets than on acquiring necessities such as food and clothing. Second, the hierarchy ignores the intensity of needs and the resulting effect on motivation. Finally, the ordering of needs may not be consistent across cultures. In some societies, for instance, social needs and belonging may be higher in the hierarchy than egoistic needs.

尽管马斯洛的层次理论带给需要这个复杂问题一种有用的组织形式,还是有些批评说它太简单。首先,需要并不总是按这个层次的顺序排列。有些消费者可能会优先购买乐透彩票,而不是去获得诸如食品、衣物等必需品。第二,该层次理论忽视了需要的强度和对动机的影响。最后,需求的层级顺序可能与某些文化不一致。例如,在某些社会中,社交和归宿感的需要可能在层次上比以自我为中心的需要更高。

阅读:动机、能力和机会_4_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition - 七郎 - 七郎 / Seven Liu

  

Exhibit 2.3

图2.3

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

马斯洛的需要层次

Maslow suggested that needs can be categorized into a basic hierarchy. People fulfill lower order needs (e.g., physiological needs for food, water, sleep) before they fulfill higher order needs.

马斯洛提出,需要可以归纳成几个基本的层次。人们在满足高层次需要之前要先满足低层次需要(例如食物、水、睡眠等生理需要)。

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