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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.

 
 
 

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阅读:动机、能力和机会_5_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition  

2012-12-24 00:04:35|  分类: 读点英文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Types of Needs

需要的类型

Another way to categorize needs is as (1) social and nonsocial needs or as (2) functional, symbolic, and hedonic needs (see Exhibit 2.4).

另一种分类方法是将需要分成(1)社会性需求和非社会性需求,或者,(2)功能性需要、炫耀性需要和享乐性需要。(参阅图2.4。)

阅读:动机、能力和机会_5_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition - 七郎 - 七郎 / Seven Liu

  

Exhibit 2.4

图2.4

Categorizing Needs

给需要分类

Needs can be categorized according to whether they are (1) social or nonsocial and (2) functional, symbolic, or hedonic in nature. This categorization method helps marketers think about consumers' needs.

需要,可以根据他们它在本质上是社会性的还是非社会性的进行分类,也可以按照购买它的目的是功能、炫耀还是享乐进行分类。这种分类方法有助于市场销售人员对消费者需求进行思考。

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  • Social needs are externally directed and relate to other individuals. Fulfilling these needs thus requires the presence or actions of other people. For example, the need for status drives our desire to have others hold us in high regard; the need for support drives us to have others relieve us of our burdens; the need for modeling re?ects a wish to have others show us how to behave. We may be motivated to buy products like Hallmark cards or use services such as MySpace.com because they help us achieve a need for affiliation. Other products may be valued because they are consistent with our need for status or our need to be unique. We also have antisocial needs—needs for space and psychological distance from other people. Plane seats that are too close together violate our need for space and motivate us to escape the confining environment.

    社会性需要是受外部环境导向的,与其他个体相关。因此,要满足这些条件,要有其他人存在,或者有其他人的活动。例如,地位的要求,驱动我们希望别人尊重自己;支持的需要驱动我们要求别人减轻自己的负担。对造型的要求反应了我们期望别人告诉我们如何表现。我们会受到激励去购买产品,比如豪马贺卡,或者某种服务,比如Myspace.com,因为它们使我们得到一种归宿感。另一些产品的价值来源于它们与我们的对地位或独特性的需要相一致。我们还会有"反社会"的需要——与其他人在空间或心理上保持距离的需要。飞机的座位太过紧凑拥挤,就有违我们对空间的需要,使我们急于逃离这种拘束。

     

  • Nonsocial needs are those for which achievement is not based on other people. Our needs for sleep, novelty, control, uniqueness, and understanding, which involve only ourselves, can affect the usage of certain goods and services. We might purchase the same brand repeatedly to maintain consistency in our world—or we might buy something different to fulfill a need for variety.

    非社会性需要获得并非基于其他人,而来源于个体自身。我们对睡眠、新奇事物、满足控制欲,获得独特感以及求知的需要,只涉及我们自己,对某些产品和服务的使用产生影响。我们可能会重复购买同一品牌的东西,从而保持我们个人世界里的一致性——或者,我们会通过购买某些不同的东西来满足多样性的需要。

     

  • Functional needs may be social or nonsocial (see Exhibit 2.4). Functional needs motivate the search for products that solve consumption-related problems. For example, you might consider buying a product like a car with side airbags because it appeals to your safety needs (a functional, nonsocial need). For mothers with young children, hiring a nanny would solve the need for support (a functional, social need).

    功能性需要可以是社会性的也可能是非社会性的(参阅图2.4)。功能性需要会激发对产品的研究,解决与消费相关的问题。例如,你会认为购买副驾驶上有安全气囊的汽车符合你对安全需要的诉求(一项功能,非社会性需要)。对于有小孩儿的妈妈来说,雇佣保姆可以解决得到支持的需要(一项功能,社会性需要)。

    Functional needs: Needs that motivate the search for offerings that solve consumption related problems.

    功能性需要:激发对可解决与消费相关的问题的供应的研究。

     

  • Symbolic needs affect how we perceive ourselves and how we are perceived by others. Achievement, independence, and self-control are symbolic needs because they are connected with our sense of self. Similarly, our need for uniqueness is symbolic because it drives consumption decisions about how we express our identity. The need to avoid rejection and the need for achievement, status, affiliation, and belonging are symbolic because they re?ect our social position or role. For example, some consumers wear Jimmy Choo shoes to express their social standing.

    炫耀性需要影响我们如何看待自己以及别人如何看待我们。成就、独立和自我控制就是炫耀性需要,因为它们与我们的自我感觉相关。类似地,我们对独特性的需要是炫耀性的,因为它驱动与我们如何表达自己身份有关的消费决定。避免排斥的需要和成就感、地位和归宿感的需要都是炫耀性的,因为它反映了我们的社会地位或角色。例如,某些消费者穿高档的吉米·丘牌鞋子,来表现自己的社会地位。

    Symbolic needs: Needs that relate to how we perceive ourselves, how we are perceived by others, how we relate to others, and the esteem in which we are held by others.

    炫耀性需要:与以下问题相关的需要:我们如何看待自己、别人如何看待我们、我们与别人是何关系,以及由别人决定的对我们的尊敬程度。

     

  • Hedonic needs include needs for sensory stimulation, cognitive stimulation, and novelty (nonsocial hedonic needs) and needs for reinforcement, sex, and play (social hedonic needs). These hedonic needs re?ect our inherent desires for sensory pleasure. If the desire is intense enough, it can inspire fantasizing about specific goods, simultaneously pleasurable and discomforting. Consumers may buy perfume for the sensory pleasure it can bring or go to luxury shopping areas like the Shoppes at Palazzo in Las Vegas for the eye-catching ambiance气氛. For the same reason, products containing fake fat failed because they did not meet consumers' hedonic needs—they tasted bad.

    享乐性需要,包括为了感官刺激、认知刺激和追求新奇(非社会性的享受需要),以及为养精蓄锐、性和玩乐(社会性的享受需要)。这些享乐性需要反映了我们的对获得感官愉悦的一种内在欲望。如果欲望足够强烈,它就会激发对特定物品的幻想,并伴随愉悦和不安。消费者会为了购买香水是因为它能带来感官愉悦,而去像拉斯维加斯Palazzo酒店里的名店那样的豪华购物场所,则是为了感受那种引人注目的氛围。同样的原因,含有人造脂肪的产品不受欢迎,因为它们不符合消费者的享受性需要——味道太差了。

    Hedonic needs: Needs that relate to sensory pleasure.

    享乐性需要:与感官愉悦相关的需要。

     

     

  • Needs for cognition and stimulation also affect motivation and behavior. Consumers with a high need for cognition (a need for mental stimulation) enjoy being involved in mentally taxing activities like reading and deeply processing information when making decisions. People with a low need for cognition may prefer activities that require less thought, such as watching TV, and are less likely to actively process information during decision making. In addition, consumers often need other kinds of stimulation. Those with a high optimum stimulation level enjoy a lot of sensory stimulation and tend to be involved in shopping and seeking brand information. They also show heightened involvement in ads. Consumers with thrill-seeking寻求刺激的 tendencies趋势 enjoy activities like skydiving and white-water rafting. In contrast, consumers who feel overstimulated被过度刺激的 want to get away from people, noise, and demands—a desire revealed in the popularity of vacations at monasteries修道院 and other sanctuaries圣殿.

    认知和刺激的需要也会响动机和行为。对认知(脑力刺激)要求高的消费者喜欢涉入繁重的脑力活动,比如阅读和在做决定是深入思考。对认知要求低的人可能更喜欢不太需要思考的活动,譬如看电视,而且在做决定的时候不太喜欢对信息深入处理——思考。另外,消费者常常需要其他类型的刺激。那些把追求最优作为刺激的人喜欢大量的感官刺激,并倾向于涉入购买活动和搜寻品牌信息。他们也会表现出对广告具有很高的涉入。那些寻求刺激的消费者倾向于爱好跳伞和白浪漂流活动。相比之下,感觉受到过度刺激的消费者则想要摆脱人群、摆脱噪音、摆脱没玩没了的要求——修道院以及其他灵修场所的流行泄露了这种渴望。

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