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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.




阅读:动机、能力和机会_6_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition  

2012-12-25 14:38:05|  分类: 读点英文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Characteristics of Needs


Each of the preceding needs has several characteristics:



  • Needs are dynamic. Needs are never fully satisfied; satisfaction is only temporary. Clearly, eating once will not satisfy our hunger forever. Also, as soon as one need is satisfied, new needs emerge. After we have eaten a meal, we might next have the need to be with others (the need for affiliation). Thus, needs are dynamic because daily life is a constant process of need fulfillment.


  • Needs exist in a hierarchy. Although several needs may be activated at any one time, some assume more importance than others. You may experience a need to eat during an exam, but your need for achievement may assume a higher priority—so you stay to finish the test. Despite this hierarchy, many needs may be activated simultaneously and influence your acquisition, usage, and disposition behaviors. Thus, your decision to go out for dinner with friends may be driven by a combination of needs for stimulation, food, and companionship.


  • Needs can be internally or externally aroused. Although many needs are internally activated, some needs can be externally cued. Smelling pizza cooking in the apartment next door may, for example, affect your perceived need for food.


  • Needs can conflict. A given behavior or outcome can be seen as both desirable and undesirable if it satisfies some needs but fails to satisfy others. The result is called an approach-avoidance conflict because you both want to engage in the behavior and want to avoid it. Teenagers may experience an approach avoidance conflict in deciding whether to smoke cigarettes. Although they may believe that others will think they are cool for smoking (consistent with the need for belonging), they also know that smoking is bad for them (incompatible with the need for safety).


    • Approach-avoidance conflict: A feeling of con?ictedness about acquiring or consuming an offering that fulfills one need but fails to fulfill another.



  • An approach-approach conflict occurs when someone must choose between two or more equally desirable options that fulfill different needs. A consumer who is invited to a career-night function (consistent with achievement needs) might experience an approach-approach conflict if he is invited to see a basketball game with friends (consistent with affiliation needs) on the same evening. This person will experience conflict if he views both options as equally desirable.


    • Approach-approach conflict: A feeling of conflictedness about which offering to acquire when each can satisfy an important but different need.



  • An avoidance-avoidance conflict occurs when the consumer must choose between two equally undesirable options, such as going home alone right after a late meeting (not satisfying a need for safety) or waiting another hour until a friend can drive her home (not satisfying a need for convenience). Neither option is desirable, which creates conflict.
  • 当消费者必须在两种同等不想要的选项间做出选择时,就会产生回避-回避冲突,譬如晚上会议结束得很晚,是独自立即回家(不满足安全性需要)还是再等一个小时和朋友一起走(不满足便利性需要)都是不想要的选择。这两种均不想要的选项就构成了冲突。
    • Avoidance-avoidance conflict: A feeling of conflictedness about which offering to acquire when neither can satisfy an important but different need.




Identifying Needs


Because needs in?uence motivation and its effects, marketers are keenly interested in identifying and measuring them. However, consumers are often unaware of their needs and have trouble explaining them to researchers. Inferring consumers' needs based only on their behaviors is also difficult because a given need might not be linked to a specific behavior. In other words, the same need (for example, affiliation) can be exhibited in various and diverse behaviors (visiting friends, going to the gym), and the same behavior (going to the gym) can reflect various needs (affiliation, achievement). Consider the activity of shopping. One study found that when women shop in drugstores, they are seeking information about items that provide peace of mind (satisfying needs for safety and well-being). When they shop in club stores like Costco or Price Chopper, they are seeking adventure and entertainment (satisfying the need for stimulation).

因为需要影响动机极其结果,因而市场销售人员对识别和测量它们有强烈的兴趣。然而,消费者常常没有觉察到这种需求,而且难以向研究者做出解释。根据消费者的行为来推断其需求也是有困难的,因为给定的需要可能并不一定关联到特定的行为。换句话说,相同的需要(譬如,友好关系)会表现为变化万千的行为(访问朋友,去健身房…),而相同的行为(去健身房)也可以反应各种需要(友好关系、成就感)。下面分析一下购物行为,有研究发现,女性在药店里购物时,她们是在寻找能让自己安心的信息(满足对安全和健康的需要),而当她们置身于柯思科(Costco)或普利斯超普(Price Chopper)等俱乐部商店时,却是在追寻冒险和娱乐(满足对刺激的需要)。

Inferring needs in a cross-cultural context is particularly difficult. For example, some research indicates that U.S. consumers use toothpaste primarily for its cavity reducing capabilities (a functional need). In contrast, consumers in England and some French-speaking areas of Canada use toothpaste primarily to freshen breath (a hedonic need). French women drink mineral water so they will look better (a symbolic need), whereas German consumers drink it for its health powers (a functional need).


Given these difficulties, marketers sometimes use indirect techniques to uncover consumers' needs. One technique is to ask consumers to interpret a set of relatively ambiguous模棱两可的 stimuli刺激物 such as cartoons, word associations, incomplete sentences, and incomplete stories. Using Exhibit 2.5, one consumer might reveal needs for esteem by interpreting the man in the cartoon as thinking, "My friends will think I'm really cool for riding in this car!" Another might reveal needs for affiliation by filling in the cartoon with "I could take all my friends for rides with me."



Exhibit 2.5


Uncovering Consumers' Needs



When one study asked cigarette smokers why they smoked, most said they enjoyed it and believed that smoking in moderation was fine. However, when they were given incomplete sentences like "People who never smoke are           ," respondents filled in the blanks with words like happier and wiser. And when given sentences like "Teenagers who smoke are           ," respondents answered with words like crazy and foolish. These smokers were clearly more concerned about smoking than their explicit明确的 answers indicated.


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