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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.

 
 
 

日志

 
 

阅读:动机、能力和机会_6_Consumer Behavior, 5th Edition  

2012-12-25 14:38:05|  分类: 读点英文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Characteristics of Needs

需要之特性

Each of the preceding needs has several characteristics:

前述的每种要求都有几个特点:

 

  • Needs are dynamic. Needs are never fully satisfied; satisfaction is only temporary. Clearly, eating once will not satisfy our hunger forever. Also, as soon as one need is satisfied, new needs emerge. After we have eaten a meal, we might next have the need to be with others (the need for affiliation). Thus, needs are dynamic because daily life is a constant process of need fulfillment.

    需要是动态的需要永远不会完全得到满足;需要只是暂时的。明显,吃一次饭绝不会让我们永远消除饥饿。同样的道理,一旦得到满足,新的需要就出现了。我们吃完一餐之后,我们可能产生和别人待在一起的需要(对紧密的人际关系的需要)因此,需要是动态的,因为日常生活是永恒的满足需要之过程。

  • Needs exist in a hierarchy. Although several needs may be activated at any one time, some assume more importance than others. You may experience a need to eat during an exam, but your need for achievement may assume a higher priority—so you stay to finish the test. Despite this hierarchy, many needs may be activated simultaneously and influence your acquisition, usage, and disposition behaviors. Thus, your decision to go out for dinner with friends may be driven by a combination of needs for stimulation, food, and companionship.

    需要中存在着层次。尽管几种需要可能会同时被激活,但其中的重要程度会不同。你可能会有这样的经验:在参加测验的时候肚子饿了,但你对成绩的需要,应该有较高的优先级——所以你会留在那里完成考试。除了这种层次,很多需要会同时被激活并影响到你的获取、使用和处置行为。所以,你决定和朋友一起去吃饭,可能是受两种需要共同刺激的驱动:食物,和友谊。

  • Needs can be internally or externally aroused. Although many needs are internally activated, some needs can be externally cued. Smelling pizza cooking in the apartment next door may, for example, affect your perceived need for food.

    需要可以由内因或外因唤醒尽管很多需要是内因激活的,但也有一些需要却因外因而触发。例如,闻到公寓隔壁飘来做匹萨饼的香味,会使你发觉自己饿了。

  • Needs can conflict. A given behavior or outcome can be seen as both desirable and undesirable if it satisfies some needs but fails to satisfy others. The result is called an approach-avoidance conflict because you both want to engage in the behavior and want to avoid it. Teenagers may experience an approach avoidance conflict in deciding whether to smoke cigarettes. Although they may believe that others will think they are cool for smoking (consistent with the need for belonging), they also know that smoking is bad for them (incompatible with the need for safety).

    需要之间会产生冲突。如果特定的行为或结果,可满足一种需要,却未能满足另一种需要,就可以理解为想要又不想要。其结果称为接近-回避冲突,因为你既想实施这个行为又想避免这个行为。青少年可能会经历到的一个接近-回避冲突是决定是否吸烟。尽管他们可能相信吸烟会使别人会觉得自己很酷(与归属感的需要一致),但是也懂得吸烟是有害的(与安全的需要一致)。

    • Approach-avoidance conflict: A feeling of con?ictedness about acquiring or consuming an offering that fulfills one need but fails to fulfill another.

      接近-回避冲突:由于某种获得或消费行为可以满足一种需要而与另一种需要相违所产生的矛盾心理。

       

  • An approach-approach conflict occurs when someone must choose between two or more equally desirable options that fulfill different needs. A consumer who is invited to a career-night function (consistent with achievement needs) might experience an approach-approach conflict if he is invited to see a basketball game with friends (consistent with affiliation needs) on the same evening. This person will experience conflict if he views both options as equally desirable.

    当某人必须从两个或更多个满足不同需要的同等合意选项中进行选择的时候,就出现了接近-接近冲突。某个消费者接到参加晚上举办的招聘会的邀请(与获得成就的需要一致),若同一天晚上又接到和朋友们一起看篮球赛的邀请(与友谊的需要相一致),而在他看来这两个邀请具有同等的吸引力,这时该消费者就会遭遇心里上的矛盾冲突。

    • Approach-approach conflict: A feeling of conflictedness about which offering to acquire when each can satisfy an important but different need.

      接近-接近冲突:每种供给均可满足一种重要但不同的需要时所产生的矛盾心理。

       

  • An avoidance-avoidance conflict occurs when the consumer must choose between two equally undesirable options, such as going home alone right after a late meeting (not satisfying a need for safety) or waiting another hour until a friend can drive her home (not satisfying a need for convenience). Neither option is desirable, which creates conflict.
  • 当消费者必须在两种同等不想要的选项间做出选择时,就会产生回避-回避冲突,譬如晚上会议结束得很晚,是独自立即回家(不满足安全性需要)还是再等一个小时和朋友一起走(不满足便利性需要)都是不想要的选择。这两种均不想要的选项就构成了冲突。
    • Avoidance-avoidance conflict: A feeling of conflictedness about which offering to acquire when neither can satisfy an important but different need.

      回避-回避冲突:在可获得的供给中选择任何一种,都会有一种重要但不同的需要无法得到满足,此时就产生了这种矛盾心理。

 

 

Identifying Needs

需要之识别

Because needs in?uence motivation and its effects, marketers are keenly interested in identifying and measuring them. However, consumers are often unaware of their needs and have trouble explaining them to researchers. Inferring consumers' needs based only on their behaviors is also difficult because a given need might not be linked to a specific behavior. In other words, the same need (for example, affiliation) can be exhibited in various and diverse behaviors (visiting friends, going to the gym), and the same behavior (going to the gym) can reflect various needs (affiliation, achievement). Consider the activity of shopping. One study found that when women shop in drugstores, they are seeking information about items that provide peace of mind (satisfying needs for safety and well-being). When they shop in club stores like Costco or Price Chopper, they are seeking adventure and entertainment (satisfying the need for stimulation).

因为需要影响动机极其结果,因而市场销售人员对识别和测量它们有强烈的兴趣。然而,消费者常常没有觉察到这种需求,而且难以向研究者做出解释。根据消费者的行为来推断其需求也是有困难的,因为给定的需要可能并不一定关联到特定的行为。换句话说,相同的需要(譬如,友好关系)会表现为变化万千的行为(访问朋友,去健身房…),而相同的行为(去健身房)也可以反应各种需要(友好关系、成就感)。下面分析一下购物行为,有研究发现,女性在药店里购物时,她们是在寻找能让自己安心的信息(满足对安全和健康的需要),而当她们置身于柯思科(Costco)或普利斯超普(Price Chopper)等俱乐部商店时,却是在追寻冒险和娱乐(满足对刺激的需要)。

Inferring needs in a cross-cultural context is particularly difficult. For example, some research indicates that U.S. consumers use toothpaste primarily for its cavity reducing capabilities (a functional need). In contrast, consumers in England and some French-speaking areas of Canada use toothpaste primarily to freshen breath (a hedonic need). French women drink mineral water so they will look better (a symbolic need), whereas German consumers drink it for its health powers (a functional need).

在跨文化语境中推理消费者的需要是特别困难的。例如,一些研究者指出,美国消费者使用牙膏会首先考虑其减少龋洞的能力(一项功能性需要)。于此不同,英国和加拿大的一些法语区的消费者使用牙膏首先考虑到的是令口气清新(一种享乐性需要)。法国女性喝矿泉水,因此矿泉水看起来档次高一点儿(一种炫耀性需要),而德国消费者和矿泉水则是为了健康(一种功能性需要)。

Given these difficulties, marketers sometimes use indirect techniques to uncover consumers' needs. One technique is to ask consumers to interpret a set of relatively ambiguous模棱两可的 stimuli刺激物 such as cartoons, word associations, incomplete sentences, and incomplete stories. Using Exhibit 2.5, one consumer might reveal needs for esteem by interpreting the man in the cartoon as thinking, "My friends will think I'm really cool for riding in this car!" Another might reveal needs for affiliation by filling in the cartoon with "I could take all my friends for rides with me."

考虑到这些困难,市场销售人员有时使用非直接的技术去揭露消费者的需要。其中一种是请消费者解释一组相关的模棱两可的刺激物,譬如卡通、词义联想、不完整的句子,以及不完整的故事等。使用图2.5,一个消费者会解释卡通里面的男人想到了"开这辆车,我的朋友们会觉得我很酷",从而泄露了其对被尊重的需要;而另一个人将其解释为"我可以用这辆车载上我所有的朋友"则泄露了他对友好关系的需要。

 

Exhibit 2.5

图2.5

Uncovering Consumers' Needs

揭露消费者的需要

__________________________________________________________________

When one study asked cigarette smokers why they smoked, most said they enjoyed it and believed that smoking in moderation was fine. However, when they were given incomplete sentences like "People who never smoke are           ," respondents filled in the blanks with words like happier and wiser. And when given sentences like "Teenagers who smoke are           ," respondents answered with words like crazy and foolish. These smokers were clearly more concerned about smoking than their explicit明确的 answers indicated.

当研究吸烟者为什么要吸烟时,多数人会说他们感到享受而且相信适度吸烟有好处。然而,当给他们这样一个不完整的句子时:"从不吸烟的人是_________",他们填上了"幸福的人"和"聪明人"等词汇。而给他们另一个句子:"青少年吸烟是________",他们的答案是"疯狂的"和"愚蠢的"。显然,与他们明确的答案相比,这些吸烟者更在乎的是吸烟。

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