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七郎 / Seven Liu

科学与艺术,恰如人生中的红颜知己。 本博内容保留所有权利.

 
 
 

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“推迟满足感”的艺术  

2012-09-14 17:30:42|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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"推迟满足感"这种"忍耐",是为了追求更大的目标,获得更大的享受,克制自己的欲望,放弃眼前的诱惑。这种"忍耐"与排队等待之类的"忍耐"有所区别。针对"诱惑"而言,它是一种放长线钓大鱼的自我克制与自我把握——当然,这是以明确的目标为基础的。(MBA文库)

原文:http://www.wine-searcher.com/m/2012/09/the-art-of-delaying-gratification

The Art of Delaying Gratification

"推迟满足感"的艺术

AFP/ FRED TANNEAU                        法新社/弗里德·唐纽

Maureen Downey heads to the cellar.            莫林·唐尼:关于酒窖的心得

Posted Wednesday, 12-Sep-2012                    2012912日,星期三

 

The essentials of fine-wine collecting are quite simple: buy wines capable of improving or developing with time from a reputable source, and store them properly in a home cellar or professional storage facility.

好酒收藏的要领其实非常简单:从声誉好的货源购买可通过时间使品质改善的葡萄酒,然后将其妥善存储于家中的地下室或专业的存贮设施中。

Lately, the sourcing of fine wines has received much attention, with lots of commentary about provenance and fraud – clearly critical issues in building a great collection. You cannot improve a wine that has been destroyed by heat while en route to you, nor one that is fake.

后来,好酒的货源得到越来越多的关注,有很多很多关于货源和骗子的评论——显然决定性的问题是如何创建一个伟大的收藏。那些因在运输过程中受热而被破坏掉的葡萄酒是无法进一步改善的,假酒也是一样。

But even if you acquire the best wines from the most reputable vendors, who deliver them as directly as possible, it might all be for naught if they are not stored correctly or securely. I have this on good authority, from the recent experiences of customers and colleagues.

即使你从声誉最好的销售商那里订购最好的葡萄酒,他们也是尽可能直接的发货,而如果这些酒在发货前就没有正确和安全的储藏,也是毫无收藏价值的。我这样说是有充分根据的,我的顾客和同事最近的经历就可以证明这一点。

The fundamentals of wine storage include a secure environment with a consistent low temperature and relative humidity of about 75 percent, in a space that is free from natural light and vibration.

储藏葡萄酒的基础,包括恒定的低温和相对湿度约为75%的安全环境,还要避开自然光以及振动。

Temperature has a direct effect on the characteristics of aged wine. A lower temperature – 50°F (10°C), say – slows hydrolysis (the chemical aging process) and development, resulting in more complex aromas and flavors. Wine stored at 60°F (15.6°C), on the other hand – the warm end of the scale for long-term wine aging – will develop faster and potentially with less complexity. The ideal temperature for most cellars is about 55°F (12.8°C).

温度会直接影响陈年葡萄酒的特性。较低的温度——50华氏度(10摄氏度)——可以减缓水解(化学熟化)和显现作用,使葡萄酒形成更具层次感的芳香和风味。而另一方面,存储在60华氏度(15.6摄氏度)的环境下,作为葡萄酒长期储存的末期——会使葡萄酒熟化得更快一点,风味可能会相对单纯一点儿。所以多数酒窖将最佳温度设定在55华氏度(12.8摄氏度)左右。

Regardless of where your cellar falls within that scale, a steady temperature is more important to the long-term health and development of wine than the actual reading. Large temperature fluctuations result in uneven aging, curtailing the complexity of the resulting aromas. So to be conservative, steady is key and cooler is better.

而不管酒窖的温度设定为多少度,对于长期保存过程中的熟化和风味形成来说,与温度计的实际读数相比,温度的稳定性是更加重要的。温度波动的幅度过大会导致不均匀的熟化,有损于葡萄酒风味的厚重和层次感。所以保守一点说,温度更稳定、更凉一点会更好。

Relative humidity of about 75 percent keeps corks moist enough to allow a slow but steady transfer of oxygen into the wine. Rather than wine being stored flat, some people believe it should be kept at an angle so that the ullage (the air pocket between the cork and the liquid) has contact with the cork. But few cellar racks are constructed at such an angle. If wines are not stored in racks, it is better to store them on their sides, or even upside down, rather than standing upright, so that the corks stay moist.

相对湿度保持在75%可以使软木塞足够湿润,让氧气可以缓慢而稳定的进入酒中。有些人相信,让酒瓶倾斜一个角度存放比平放更好,可让气隙(软木塞和液体之间的空气)接触到软木塞。但酒窖内的酒架很少按这样的角度进行构建。如果葡萄酒没有存放在架子上,那么最好是侧放,甚至可以将瓶子倒置存放,而不是正常立放,以保持软木塞湿润。

A decade ago I auctioned the cellar of Scandia, one of Los Angeles' most famous restaurants, which had opened in the late 1940's. It had been closed for more than 10 years and, tragically, many of the wines I vetted, although kept in their original cardboard boxes in temperature- and humidity-controlled storage, had been stored upright.

十年之前,我参加了斯堪迪亚酒窖的拍卖活动,它曾经是洛杉矶最有名的饭店之一,开业于20世纪40年代晚期,已经关门十年以上了。非常可悲的是,多数我审查的葡萄酒,尽管没有开箱且存放于有温湿度控制的环境中,都是直立存放的。

Most of the wines I have tasted from this collection are delicious – Hanzell pinots and cabernets from the 70's and 80's, old Mayacamas and Heitz cabernets, and Chalone and Calera pinots from the 80's – but the corks have been a nightmare to fish out. Because of their less-than-ideal storage, the wines were sold at a bargain price.

该酒窖收藏的葡萄酒,我品尝过的多数味道很好,譬如上个世纪70~80年代的哈泽尔酒庄的比诺(Hanzell pinots)和解百衲(Cabernets),陈年的梅亚卡马斯(Mayacamas)和赫兹酒庄解百纳(Heitz cabernets),以及80年代的卡蒙(Chalone)和卡莱拉酒庄的比诺,可掏出软木的过程简直就是一场噩梦。因为不理想的存储状况,这些葡萄酒以极低的价格卖出去了。

Even less attention is typically paid to light and vibration – issues that should be raised with your builder if you are having a cellar constructed. Light can damage wine, as can the heat that lights give off.

虽然光照和振动较少被关注,若要建造一个酒庄,也要格外关注。光对葡萄酒有害,因为光会产生热。

Oklahoma collector Aubrey McClendon is purported to have built a gorgeous home cellar, only to find the lights the designer put in were so powerful that they would harm his collection. He knew enough about wine to appreciate that his old and rare beauties needed a darker atmosphere.

俄克拉荷马州收藏家奥伯雷·麦克兰登声称已建造了一个家庭酒窖,只是发现酒窖设计者放入的光太强烈了,会对他的收藏不利。他深知葡萄酒乃陈年而稀有之物,需要一个幽暗而潮湿的环境。

Bad vibes

不好的共振

Vibration is the issue with which I have the most problems when working in people's home cellars. The chemical reactions of aging are accelerated by movement, resulting in less-complex aromatics.

振动是家庭酒窖的普遍问题。陈年熟化的化学反应会因为运动而加速,导致香味的层次单调。

A beautiful, new, purpose-built cellar in Northern California is a case in point. On paper it was in a perfect location, embedded in the ground to help with heat stability, and with temperature and humidity controls. However, shortly after moving the wine into its new home, I noticed the cellar was adjacent to an under-floor heating unit. Not only did the heater make one corner of the cellar warmer, it also caused a slight vibration.

例如位于加利福尼亚州北部一个新建的美丽而独特的酒窖,在设计图上,它的位置堪称完美,深入地下有助于热稳定性和对温湿度的控制。然而,将葡萄酒移入新家之后不久,我注意到酒窖毗邻暖气的地热单元,发热器不仅导致酒窖的一角温度升高,还导致了轻微的振动。

This spot had been intended for the cellar-owner's rarest wines, with beautiful enclosed cabinets, but they were left empty for fear of the effect on the wines of the vibration and slight heat differential.

这个酒窖本来打算用于储藏酒窖主人最珍贵的,用漂亮而密封的箱子进行包装的葡萄酒。但是由于担心振动和轻微的受热变化,酒窖被清空了。

While a controlled home cellar is ideal, it is not realistic for everyone to have one. Small to large wine storage cooler units are a great option. They come in many sizes and can pay for themselves by keeping wines safe and aging them correctly.

尽管受控的家庭酒窖是最好的,但每个人拥有一个酒窖是不现实的。大大小小的葡萄酒冷藏单元是个极好的选择。它有很多不同的型号可选,值得买来用于保证葡萄酒的安全和正确陈化。

I have seen garages with as many as five of them serving as great storage facilities.

我见过里面有多达5个冷藏单元的车库,成为很好的葡萄酒储藏设施。

In temperate areas with minimal fluctuation in temperature and humidity, such as San Francisco and its environs, I have seen many "natural cellars" that are completely adequate for mid-term storage.

在温湿度波动很小的地区,如旧金山及其周边,我曾见过很多"天然酒窖",完全适于葡萄酒的中期储藏。

Not that I would advise keeping first growths or grand cru burgundies "under the house" if you plan to resell, but often these cellars result in wines that are perfect, if not pretty, even after decades.

如果你计划转售自己的收藏,我不建议将顶级精选波尔多酒庄酒和顶级法定产区葡萄酒储藏于家庭酒窖中,但这些酒窖的储藏效果很好,甚至几十年后,就算不完美,也称得上优秀。

(译注:First Growth (French: Premier Cru) status refers to a classification of wines primarily from the Bordeaux region of France. Grand cru (French for great growth) is a regional wine classification that designates a vineyard known for its favorable reputation in producing wine. Although often used to describe grapes, wine or cognac, the term is not technically a classification of wine quality per se, but is intended to indicate the potential of the vineyard or terroir. It is the highest level of classification of AOC wines from Burgundy or Alsace. ——Wikipedia

If you just are starting out, pick a cool, low-to-the-ground, dark place toward the center of your home, such as an interior closet with a rack on the ground. This can serve as suitable storage for wines that are only to age five or so years.

如果你刚刚尝试收藏葡萄酒,那么在家里找个阴凉之处,比如在室内的橱柜中贴地放个架子就行了。在这样的环境下,葡萄酒保存个5年左右是没有问题的。

For fine and rare wines, professional storage is the best option if you do not have a home cellar or controlled wine cabinet.

对于珍稀好酒来说,若没有家庭酒窖或控温酒柜,专业储藏就是最好的选择了。

Security blanket

"安乐毯"

Whether at home or in professional storage, security should be a key concern. Most collectors think it is enough to "keep the kids out," or designate one area a "safe zone" in case the spouse's bridge group gets thirsty. But few think ahead to safeguard their collections against earthquakes, and fewer still get regular audits of professional storage facilities, including checking temperature records.

不管是家里酒窖还是在专业仓库里,要重视安全问题。多数收藏者所想到的仅仅是"不要让小孩进来"或针对太太们打牌时口渴的情况,划出一个"安全区"。但很少的人会想到预防地震危及藏品,更少有人会定期对专业仓储设施进行定期核查,包括检查温度记录等。

I come from San Francisco – an earthquake zone – and am astounded at how few people quake-proof their cellars with simple measures — wire mesh, for instance — to stop bottles from falling and smashing. Forgiving floorings can also be a savior in an earthquake zone.

我来自旧金山——处于地震带上,令我非常震惊的是,对酒窖采取简单的防震措施,例如设置铁丝网,来防止地震时瓶子滑落打破的人都少之又少。铺设地板也可以在地震中成为救星。

Even in locker facilities, I make sure to pack units so that shaking will not topple cases and cause bottles to jump to their deaths.

甚至锁定设施,我也确信,可以防止酒瓶不会在震动时跳楼自杀。

I believe the majority of professional storage facilities are dedicated to protecting their clients' wines. Many facilities publish temperature and humidity readings in real time on the internet and it is a good idea to keep an eye on these.

我相信多数专业仓库的设施都会非常关注如何对客户的葡萄酒进行保护。很多设施通过互联网上实时发布温度和湿度监测信息是个很好的主意。

? Maureen Downey | A wine's value is diminished by the cosmetic effects of mold - but a moldy label can also indicate problems with the cork and the wine inside

版权:莫林·唐尼 | 装饰效果上的霉变会降低葡萄酒的价值——另一方面霉变的标签也意味着软木塞会出问题进而导致酒的变质。


I had one customer come to me for help when he suffered a storage nightmare. He had spent over a decade collecting wines with the intention of retiring from business in his 50's and opening a wine bar.

我的一个顾客在经历了一次仓储噩梦时来找我。他耗时十年以上来收藏葡萄酒,打算在50岁后退休,然后开个酒吧。

The government-controlled storage facility in the town where he lived in Canada had a double-whammy of an issue: a breakdown of the air-conditioning unit and simultaneous water damage when the sprinklers went haywire. The situation went unchecked for almost 10 days, during which mold took hold. Unfortunately that man's dreams of opening a wine bar were dashed.

他居住在加拿大,是政府管理的仓储措施,祸不单行:空调单元故障,同时供水系统损坏,喷水器失控。这种情况没有及时发现,持续了10天之久,在此期间,出现了霉变。他退休后开家酒吧的梦想就这样不幸地破灭了。

Keep an eye out

保持警觉

The most valuable wines can become worthless if carelessly stored. One of the draws of professional storage is ease and convenience.

很多贵重的葡萄酒因为粗心大意的储藏而变得一文不值。专业仓储机构的吸引力在于通过轻松方便的服务。

But as a customer in New York City will attest, oversight is still fundamental. He had bought a relatively small collection of 2000 and 2005 vintage first-growth red Bordeaux and Sauternes, and Domaine de la Romanée-Conti from the best vintages of the past 15 years, all in original wooden cases (OWCs), and estimated by two auction houses to be worth $1.3 million.

但像纽约的一个顾客所说,监管仍是必要的。他在过去的15年里,购买形成了一个较小的收藏,主要是2000年和2005年的顶级红色波尔多(red Bordeaux )和索丹白葡萄酒(Sauternes),以及来自最好年份的罗曼丽康帝-拉塔希(Domaine de la Romanée-Conti),经两家拍卖行股价高达130万美元。

It was strictly an investment, so he never personally took possession of the wine, storing it with the NYC retailer from which he had bought it. When he decided it was time to sell, there was a shock in store: the retailer had already sold much of the wine.

这当然是一项投资,所以他从不自行管控这些葡萄酒,而放在贩卖它的那些纽约市的经销商那里代管。当他觉得是时候卖掉了,对仓库来说就是一场震动:因为销售商已经卖掉了大多数的葡萄酒。

The retailer admitted the sale, saying it was "to cover [his] operating expenses." When we pulled what was left from the locker, it was worth less than $100,000. I was, and remain, astonished.

经销商承认卖掉了,说那是用来"弥补营业费"。当我们去查看剩下多少时,只有不到10万美元的酒了。对此我除了深感震惊,简直无话可说。

The bottom line, according to wine storage and logistics expert and owner of Domaine Wine Storage, Marc Lazar, is don't store where you buy. "[It's a] simple rule that avoids all these title and inventory errors. Sure, we make inventory errors too, but that incentive to sell from a client collection or swap wine, et cetera, does not exist when you are not selling wine retail at the same time."

根据葡萄酒储藏物流专家、葡萄酒庄所有者马克·来泽所设定的底线,不要把酒存放在你购买它的地方。"这条很简单的规则,可以避免所有的库存名称和清单错误。真的,我们也会在库存清单上出错,但是利益会驱使人们去卖掉或换掉客户的收藏,而你不做葡萄酒零售则不会犯这个错误。"

There are many great facilities run by retailers, but I advise my clients to put their own locks on their lockers. I also tell them to check in on their wines regularly, be they in home cellars or professional storage facilities.

有很多机构由零售商运营,但我还是建议我的客户自行给寄存的货物上锁。我还告诉他们要设定规则经常进行检查自己的葡萄酒,就像它们放在家庭酒窖或者专业仓储设施里一样。

Wine is fragile, and heat fluctuations can damage even the heartiest of them. Humidity issues can wipe out the labels, capsules and corks, and rodents can chew through boxes and woods alike.

葡萄酒是很娇气的,一旦遇热就会损坏,即使是那些最烈的酒。湿度过大会造成酒标、胶封和软木塞毁坏,啮齿类动物也会咬坏盒子和木箱等。

The best way to care for your wine is to keep an eye on it, and don't forget to pop some bottles along the way to see how they are coming along.

保护葡萄酒最好的办法就是对它上心,时刻保持警觉,而且别忘了开几瓶品尝一下,看看储藏的效果。

 

* Maureen Downey is a foremost expert on wine fraud, and is the owner of San Francisco-based Chai Consulting, a firm which advises clients on all aspects of wine collection management. In the coming months Maureen will respond to reader queries to do with collecting, cellaring and authentication. Please email your detailed query, and Maureen's responses will be posted on Wine-Searcher.

*莫林?唐尼是是葡萄酒防欺诈领域的一流专家,是旧金山Chai顾问公司的老板,该顾问公司为葡萄酒收藏和管理提供给全方位的咨询服务。未来的几个月,莫林·唐尼将负责葡萄酒收藏、窖存和鉴定方面的读者答疑。如有疑问请发邮件,他会在Wine-Searcher上贴出回复。

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